History of Photography and the Camera

Photography is a word derived from the Greek words photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”). The word was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W. Herschel in 1839. It is a method of recording images by the action of light or related radiation onto a sensitive material.

Pinhole Camera

Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham) was a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000AD. He invented the first pinhole camera (also called the Camera Obscura} and was able to explain why the images were upside down.

The first casual reference to the optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible was observed and noted by Aristotle around 330 BC. He questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined through a square hole.

The First Photograph

On a summer day in 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce developed the first photographic image with a camera obscura.


How To Make A Monthly Budget That Works

Prior to Niepce, people just used the camera obscura for viewing or drawing purposes, not for making photographs. By letting light draw the picture, Niepce’s heliographs, or sun prints as they were called, were the prototype for the modern photograph.

Niepce placed an engraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen and then exposed it to light. The shadowy areas of the engraving blocked light, but the whiter areas permitted light to react with the chemicals on the plate. When Niepce placed the metal plate in a solvent, gradually an image, until then invisible, appeared. However, Niepce’s photograph required eight hours of light exposure to create and would soon fade away.

Louis Daguerre

Fellow Frenchman, Louis Daguerre was also experimenting with ways to capture an image, but it would take him another dozen years before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards.

Daguerre was the inventor of the first practical process of photography. In 1829, he formed a partnership with Niepce to improve the process Niepce had developed. In 1839, following several years of experimentation and Niepce’s death, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography and named it after himself.

Daguerre’s daguerreotype process started by fixing the images onto a sheet of silver-plated copper. He then polished the silver and coated it in iodine, creating a surface that was sensitive to light. Then, he put the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few minutes. After the image was painted by light, Daguerre bathed the plate in a solution of silver chloride. This process created a lasting image that would not change if exposed to light.

In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce’s son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly and by 1850, there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone.

Negative to Postive Process

The inventor of the first negative from which multiple positive prints were made was Henry Fox Talbot, an English botanist, mathematician and a contemporary of Daguerre.

Talbot sensitized paper to light using a silver salt solution. He then exposed the paper to light. The background became black and the subject was rendered in gradations of grey. This was a negative image. And from the paper negative, Talbot made contact prints, reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed picture. In 1841, he perfected this paper-negative process and called it a calotype, Greek for beautiful picture.


Tintypes, patented in 1856 by Hamilton Smith, was another medium that heralded the birth of photography. A thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, yielding a positive image.

Wet Plate Negatives

In 1851, Frederick Scoff Archer, an English sculptor, invented the wet plate negative. Using a viscous solution of collodion, he coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.

Photography advanced considerably once sensitized materials could be coated on plate glass. However, wet plates had to be developed quickly before the emulsion dried. In the field, this meant carrying along a portable darkroom.

Dry Plate Negatives & Hand-held Cameras

In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a dried gelatin emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time. This meant photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry processes absorbed light so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible.

Flexible Roll Film

In 1889, George Eastman invented film with a base that was flexible, unbreakable and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman’s, made the mass-produced box camera a reality.

Color Photographs

In the early 1940s, commercially viable color films (except Kodachrome) were brought to the market. These films used the modern technology of dye-coupled colors in which a chemical process connects

the three dye layers together to create an apparent color image.

This trick is one of the most effective I have ever used. Finally released famous as well as effective game hack so you can easily win the game. No matter what type of device you use because it works well on any of them. If you want to get game resources in very fast way you should use king of avalon. Safe to use application has got no issues at all. Why not to help yourself and use some game secret?
Give yourself some tricks for the game! Instead of waisting your time you may use game hacks. It is time to use and try effective cheat. This game trick is undetectable and safe tricks for game! I want to help you and make gaming more fun for you so I can recommend it for you. This hack works anywhere in the world without any issues. Please check out this fresh and stable trick.
Here are some new about game cheats. It is incredible and safe simpsons tapped out cheats. It works better than the other such type tricks. This easy to use program is just adorable. It has many useful features in one place. Could you tell me your opinion about it?
Some gamers use cm coins. Many good comments are written about that trick. I think I will test it on my device. This trick looks so adorable and efficient.
Many game hacks are useless. It is hard to find the trustworthy game trick. I am lucky that I have just founded one of it. It is my singing monsters! This stable working trick meets my desires. It has strong anti ban protection. So why it so safe!
This trick csr2 is easy to use on any device. Take a look at this generator and use it with no fears! I am very satisfied with resources maker. This cheat works stable on my device. I like this trick because gaming become more easier!
Lots of useful features have trick for gc. Tell me what do you think about it? Do not forget to look at gun safe site. This hack tool is useful for any gamer for sure. It is time for you to use it as well!